Elk Behavior

A high-head threat: This is one of the most descriptive and amazing elk behavior pictures I've made to date. As described in "Elk of North America: Ecology and Management" by Thomas and Toweill: "In approaching an opponent in high-head threat, a cow or bull will retract the upper lip as if exposing rudimentary canines, grind the teeth and utter a soft hissing sound. In full intensity, the nose points almost upward, the eyes roll forward as if to maintain the slit of the pupil horizontally, and the tongue may protrude from the side of the mouth." Other than the nose pointing almost upward, all other aspects of this behavior are shown in this photograph.

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